March 6, 2014

Andrew Carnegieai??i??s decision to aid library construction developed from his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years during the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he listened to men read aloud and discuss books borrowed with the Tradesmenai??i??s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but were required to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization of the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegieai??i??s father through business. Consequently, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegieai??i??s decision to aid library construction developed from his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years during the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he listened to men read aloud and discuss books borrowed with the Tradesmenai??i??s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.navigate to these guys Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but were required to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization of the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegieai??i??s father through business. Consequently, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to attend work, his learning did not end. Following a year inside a textile factory, he was a messenger boy for that local telegraph company. A handful of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to your young worker who wished to borrow a book. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows whereby light of knowledge streamed. In 1853, if your colonelai??i??s representatives aimed to restrict the libraryai??i??s use, Carnegie wrote a letter with the editor of the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the ideal of all working boys to have fun with the pleasures within the library. More significant, he resolved that, should he be wealthy, he will make similar opportunities designed to other poor workers.

Above the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that could enable him to fulfill that pledge. During his years for a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the skill of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts together with the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he went along to just work at age 18. Throughout his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent for the Pennsylvaniaai??i??s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in a variety of other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to look after the Keystone Bridge Company, which has been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with Buy iron ones. Via the 1870s he was centering on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Prior to selling Carnegie Steel he had begun to consider how to deal with his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, where he stated that wealthy men should live without extravagance, provide moderately with regards to their dependents, and distribute most of their riches to benefit the welfare and happiness belonging to the common man–with all the consideration that can help solely those who would help themselves. The Perfect Fields for Philanthropy, his second pseudotumor cerebri treatment topamax Pills essay, listed seven fields which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to include gifts that promoted scientific research, the general spread of knowledge, along with the promotion of world peace. A number of these organizations go on to this present day: the Carnegie Corporation in The Big Apple, as an illustration, helps support Sesame Street.

Resulting from his background, Carnegie was particularly curious about public libraries. At some point he stated a library was the best possible gift for that community, since it gave people the opportunity improve themselves. His confidence was depending upon the outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, for example, a library distributed by Enoch Pratt ended up being utilized by 37,000 individuals twelve months. Carnegie believed the relatively few public library patrons were more pills online Cheap value towards their community compared to the masses who chose not to ever enjoy the library.

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Carnegie divided his donations to libraries inside the retail and wholesale periods. Over the retail period, 1886 Buy to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the nation. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities such as private pools and libraries. Inside the years after 1896, named the wholesale period, Carnegie not any longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities that had limited admittance to cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were for less than $ten thousand. Although lots of the towns receiving gifts were during the Midwest, overall 46 states taken advantage of Carnegieai??i??s plan.

online Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction following a report produced to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 within the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report figured that for being really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings have been provided, however right now it was time to staff them experts who would stimulate active, efficient libraries throughout their communities. Libraries already promised continued to always be built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was looked to library education.

When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes of which he believed. His gifts to varied charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 percent of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a means to further improve peopleai??i??s lives, and libraries provided certainly one of his main tools to help Americans create a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and Buy meri adalat 1984 movie online http://bygonebureau.com/2018/02/01/how-much-clindamycin-for-acne/ industrialization affect Carnegie, both as he was young, and in the future? 2. Exactely how much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his involvement with books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people needs to do utilizing their money? Why did he reckon that? Should you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past with his fantastic beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, About the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).

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